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Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences by Rebecca M. Jordan-Young

By Rebecca M. Jordan-Young

Male and female brains are diversified, due to hormones coursing during the mind ahead of delivery. That's taught as truth in psychology textbooks, educational journals, and bestselling books. And those hardwired modifications clarify every thing from sexual orientation to gender id, to why there aren't extra ladies physicists or extra stay-at-home dads.

In this compelling ebook, Rebecca Jordan-Young takes at the facts that intercourse variations are hardwired into the mind. reading almost all released learn that helps the claims of "human mind association theory," Jordan-Young unearths how frequently those stories fail the criteria of technology. whether cautious researchers indicate the boundaries in their personal stories, different researchers and reporters can simply forget about them simply because mind association conception simply sounds so correct. but when a chain of methodological weaknesses, questionable assumptions, inconsistent definitions, and large gaps among ambiguous findings and grand conclusions have amassed over the years, then technology isn't clinical at all.

Elegantly written, this e-book argues passionately that the research of gender transformations merits way more rigorous, biologically subtle technological know-how. "The proof for hormonal intercourse differentiation of the human mind larger resembles a hodge-podge pile than a great structure...Once we've got cleared the rubble, we will start to construct more recent, extra clinical tales approximately human development."

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Articles and conference reports from the period indicate that both research groups hedged their bets in comparing their own evidence with the opposing theory: Young and his colleagues repeatedly mentioned that they accepted the importance of learning and experience in shaping behavior (Young, Goy, and Phoenix 1965), and Money routinely asserted his appreciation of the principles of phylogeny—the evolution-derived perspective that predicts continuity between developmental processes in humans and those observed in other animals (Money 1965a, 1965b).

1959, 370), but there were hurdles to be overcome. First, there were no actual experimental data in humans, and there was no possibility of generating such data, because experiments would involve risky and unethical manipulation of human fetuses. Second, there was the problem of emerging psychological research from a small group of clinicians at Johns Hopkins University who studied “hermaphroditism,” now called intersex syndromes. At Hopkins, John Money and John and Joan Hampson were interested in the fact that intersex people, though born with ambiguous genitalia or with “mixedsex” characteristics, seemed to have relatively normal gender identity despite their “confusing” anatomy: they felt themselves to be either men or women, not in-between or sex-neutral.

Second, it was assumed that the functions of these hormones would be limited to, or at least most important for, functions that were directly related to sex and reproduction. Third, scientists believed that the hormones would be “antagonistic,” meaning that “male” hormones would actively counter “female” characteristics, and vice versa. 4 In 1927, Laquer and colleagues, biochemical endocrinologists in Amsterdam, reported that “female sex hormone” was present not only in women, but in both the testis and the urine of “normal, healthy men” (quoted in Oudshoorn 1994, 25).

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