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Bakery food manufacture and quality: water control and by Stanley P. Cauvain

By Stanley P. Cauvain

Describes the function and keep watch over of water within the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry, and biscuit doughs; of their next processing; and within the baked product. DLC: Baked items.

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This is because the optimum conditions for the activity of different microorganisms vary, and if left uncontrolled will vary flavour development. In this context the effect of water hardness must be considered. As discussed in Chapter 1, the hardness of water varies according to geological and processing conditions, and the presence of calcium carbonate in water will act as a buffer and restrict the degree to which the p H of the brew or sponge will fall during storage. This buffering effect may be so marked that it becomes necessary to use softened water or add a suitable acid to lower the p H of the system.

Initially such doughs have a surface which is sticky to the touch, but this stickiness is gradually lost as the character of the dough changes with time after mixing. A practical consequence of this change is that the doughs become more viscous, or ‘stiffer’, as though the doughs are lacking sufficient water. This adverse effect on dough rheology can lead to sub-optimal bread quality following the interaction of the dough with any handling or moulding equipment (see below). Marsh (1998) summarised the requirements of mixing as: To To To To To disperse uniformly the recipe ingredients; encourage the dissolution and hydration of those ingredients; contribute energy to the development of a gluten structure in the dough; incorporate air bubbles within the dough; provide a dough suitable for processing.

Thacker, D. (1997) Chemical aeration, in The Technology of Cakemaking, 6th edn (ed. J. Bent), Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK, pp. 100-6. Williams, A. & Pullen, G. (1998) Functional ingredients, in Technology ofBreadmaking (ed. P. S. Young), Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK, pp. 45-80. T. J. (1951) Prevention of the growth of sucrose hydrates in sucrose sirups. Food Research, 16, 20-9. Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects Stanley P. Cauvain, Linda S.

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