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B04 STRESS ANALYSIS OF PIPING SYSTEMS by C. Basavaraju P.E., William Saifung Sun P.E.

By C. Basavaraju P.E., William Saifung Sun P.E.

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Time-History Analysis. Time-history analysis is based on hypothetical earthquake data in the form of ground displacement, velocity, or acceleration versus time. The piping system is represented by lumped masses connected by massless elastic members. 29,30 At each time step, the piping stresses, displacements, and restraint loads are calculated. Time history simulates the behavior of the piping system during the seismic excitation. The main advantage of time-history analysis is that analytically it is more accurate and less conservative compared to other approaches.

For systems with supply from a pool or river which might go below 70°F (21°C) in the winter, negative coefficients of expansion should be considered in evaluating the stress range. 27 For nonnuclear piping in regions of high seismic activity, this design requirement should also be considered. OBE and SSE. 28 For conservatism, the OBE must usually be equal to at least one-half of the SSE. Their magnitudes are expressed in terms of the gravitational acceleration g. Their motions are assumed to occur in three orthogonal directions: one vertical and two horizontal.

Stress intensification factor (SIF) approach for certain configurations 2. WRC Bulletin #107 approach with limitation on ß (attachment parameter) and γ (shell parameter) parameters 3. ASME Code cases approach 4. Approach based on utilization of any available finite element analysis (FEA) results or published data 5. Rigorous FEA approach SIF Approach In this method, the local stresses are not evaluated directly but are indirectly accounted for by applying a SIF to the general piping stresses. The SIF approach has the following limitations: • Applicable to some specific IWA configurations only • Not applicable to lugs, irregular shapes, and so forth The SIF approach is applicable in the following situations: • 360° (full) wrapper plates.

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