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Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its by Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)

By Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)

Emissions of gaseous air toxins have elevated within the final years despite elevated controls and quandary for air caliber. Predictions of destiny improvement additionally point out extra elevate in emissions has to be anticipated. From an in depth research of gas use in traditional strength vegetation in and for household heating, Brocke and Schade (1971) and Schade (1975) expect that sulfur dioxide (S02) emissions within the Federal Republic of Germany increases from '3. five million t in 1969, over four. 2 million t in 1973, to four. 6 million t in 1980. Rasch (1971) predicts that emission of hydrogen chloride (HCI) from burning of wastes increases from a gift 8000 t/year to approximately one hundred thousand t in 1980. Emission of gaseous fluoride compounds, in North Rhine Westphalia on my own, are anticipated to extend from 7500 t in 1969 to 8800 t in 1985 (MAGS, 1972). comparable predic­ tions have additionally been made within the united states (Heggestadt and Heck, 1971). A doubling of S02 emissions from oil and especially coal-fired strength vegetation is anticipated among 1960 and 1980 (Wood, 1968; Lewis et aI. , 1974). whilst it truly is thought of that overall keep an eye on of air pollution is technically and particularly economically very unlikely, it is necessary that, sooner or later, emissions are managed inside a technical and financial framework to such an quantity that ambient pollutant concentrations close to the floor current no chance to guy or his setting (BImSchG, 1974).

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Example text

This resistance is manifested in reduced leaf injury under long-term exposures to low concentrations, as opposed to short-term exposures to acute concentrations. Under high concentrations, these differences in resistance could not be seen because of the higher S02 uptake of the newly opened leaves. Pollutant uptake and degree of foliar injury are dependent not only on leaf age, but also on age of the entire plant (Guderian, 1970). S02 uptake of sunflower (H. annuus) leaves of the same age decreased with an increase in plant age.

A reduction of effects very seldom occurs. According to Haagen-Smit et ai. (1952), S02 reduced the phytotoxicity of a mixture of gasoline fumes and ozone. Tingey et ai. (1973) have also found reduced effects with mixtures of S02 and ozone, but additive and synergistic effects predominate. The extent of effects from alternately occurring pollutants seems to depend on the order in which the pollutants occur. Exposure to N0 2 and then to S02 caused no change in the effects of S02, but a strong increase in effects of S02 was observed when plants were exposed first to S02 and then to N0 2 (Matsushima and Taylor, cited in Matsushima and Brewer, 1972).

Esculentum) before and during fumigation. Plants optimally supplied with water before fumigation exhibited much more extensive leaf necrosis than plants with a succulent habit that had been deprived of water before fumigation, even when moisture content of all soils was the same during fumigation. Experiments with various moisture contents confirm the findings of Katz (1937) and Katz and Ledingham (1937) mentioned above. Results of experiments on the effects of soil moisture on sensitivity to S02 are comparable to those found under exposure to ozone.

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