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Air Pollution - Monitoring, Mdlg., Health and Control by M. Khare

By M. Khare

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The kidney and liver have the highest concentrations of cadmium, together containing about 50% of the body burden of cadmium. The cadmium concentration in the kidney cortex, before cadmiuminduced kidney damage occurs, is generally about 15 times the concentration in liver. Elimination of cadmium is very slow. As a result of this, cadmium accumulates in the body, the concentrations increasing with age and length of exposure (62). Based on organ concentration at different ages the biological half-life of cadmium in humans has been estimated in the range of 7 to 30 years.

The most important compounds containing chromium in the CrVI state are dichromate compounds and chromium trioxide. Compounds containing CrVI are used in many industrial operations: the manufacture of important inorganic pigments such as lead chromes, molybdate-oranges, zinc chromate and chromium-oxide green; wood preservation; corrosion inhibition; and coloured glasses and glazes. Basic chromic sulphates are widely used for tanning. The dyeing of textiles, the preparation of many important catalysts containing chromic oxide and the production of light-sensitive dichromated colloids for use in lithography are also well-known industrial uses of chromium-containing chemicals.

Workers in the smelting and refining industries and those employed in the production of batteries, coatings, and plastics can be exposed to much higher levels of airborne Cd and Ni (55). 1 Arsenic There are three major groups of arsenic (As) compounds: inorganic arsenic compounds, organic arsenic compounds, arsine gas and substituted arsines. Elemental arsenic is utilized in alloys in order to increase their hardness and heat resistance. It is also used in the manufacture of certain types of glass, as a component of electrical devices and as a doping agent in germanium and silicon solid-state products.

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