By G.H. Hardy

This publication is admittedly solid. it is prompt for those who are looking to comprehend fundamentals of Calculus. every little thing will get validated. For Self-taught. i'd relatively suggest to rewrite the e-book. it sort of feels to be scanned.

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**Example text**

There is no doubt that Zu incorporated the method for approximating 7T into his mathematical text, Zhui shu [x] (Method 01 mathematical composition), wh ich is not extant. There remain now but quotations in the official histories. For example, the Sui shu [y] (Standard history olthe Sui dynasty) [387-388] relates: m In ancient mathematies. lhe ratio of the cireumfercnee 10 thc diameter was lakcn to be 3 to I but this was only a rough estimate. Though various cfforts had becn madc by Liu Xin [zl.

AI-Kashi (or AI-Kashani), Ghiyath al-din Jamshid Mas'ud. In Dictionary 0/ scientific biography, Vol. 7, pp. 255-262. New York: Seribner's. 34 HM 13 LAM LAY-YONG AND ANG TIAN-SE 340 GLOSSARY a :kI1. b :flilll':t. im d :ldt jf: * e ){ f g Ei h i 71 j k fi71 1 01 1z. 71 -t-1z. G -g 1Z. p -t -t71 -t 1Z. q ~ r Jt s t ~J u ~ v -t w * x ti* y ~4S z :kI1 'tk aa *{jj ab i=J $ijJi<\. < ae X a1' \1j'$ ag ~$ ah :t! :t J;f- [L1II an '[Hf, TI} ae if ttNi up S iIIJ aq 7f ft ~ f} ur *4S au av *~ as f'ttif. HJI.

NOTES I. hang suanshu is printed in [Qian 1963, 81-258]. C. D. 200; see [Needham 1959, 24-25]. 2. There is a fairly large literature on Liu's method written in Chinese, of which one of the more upto-date is [Bai Shangshu 1983, 35-53]. In English, Liu's method is found in [Mikami 1913, 47-49], which contains some misprints, and, more brieHy, in [He Shaogeng 1983,90-98]. In our translation, we have tried to give as elose an interpretation of the original text [Qian 1963, 103-106] as possible. 3. However, the ancient Greeks were aware that the area of a cirele to the square of its radius is a constant ratio [Euelid, Bk.